There are a few benefits (toeslagen, in Dutch) for which you may be eligible while living in the Netherlands. A benefit is an amount paid directly to your bank account from the Tax Service (Belastingdienst) for a particular purpose.
Whether or not you are eligible for these benefits and what the amount would be, depends on a number of factors. The amounts of the benefits may vary from year to year. Also, if your personal circumstances change (share an apartment, start living with someone, get married or become registered partners, change jobs, receive a higher salary, change address, etc.), then these changes may influence your eligibility to receive the benefits.
On the Tax Service site, you can find some information in English about various benefits for which you might be eligible. To determine if you are eligible for the benefit(s), answer the questions for the trial calculation at this link (NOTE: the trial calculation is only in Dutch).
Of course, you could ask someone in your surroundings, who has a full understanding of Dutch, to help you. But you have to be very sure that your application is correct. The Tax Service checks some conditions on your application before administering the benefit but initially assumes the information you fill in is correct. If something is not correct, the Tax Service may not discover it until (sometimes) years later. If you want to avoid a situation where you do, indeed, receive a benefit only to find out perhaps years later that this was unjustified and that you have to pay it all back!
Below you will find a general indication of some of the requirements for eligibility for various benefits. For a complete description of all the requirements, exceptions and conditions, we refer you to the benefits section of the Tax Service website (only in Dutch). Some of this information is also available in English at this link.
The material can be complex. If you need any help regarding benefits you should contact a tax advisor. Beware this is a paid service.